#safety

Safety Bulletins

Safety Bulletins are researched, written, and distributed by the Industry-Wide Labor-Management Safety Committee for use by the motion picture and television industry. The Safety Committee is composed of guild, union, and management representatives active in industry safety and health programs.

Safety Bulletins are guidelines recommended by the Safety Committee. They are not binding laws or regulations. State, federal, and/or local regulations, where applicable, override these guidelines. Modifications in these guidelines should be made, as circumstances warrant, to ensure the safety of the cast and crew.

A PDF of all relevant Safety Bulletins must be attached to Call Sheets or otherwise distributed to affected employees. All crew are required to read distributed Safety Bulletins prior to commencing the work day. Failure to do so may result in disciplinary action, including immediate dismissal from the school.

General Safety

Animals

Artificial Haze

Chemicals and Flammable Materials

Electrical Safety

Environmental Concerns

Filming Equipment and Vehicles

Stunts and Special Effects

Water Hazards

Weapons

Weather

RF Transmitters

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

These guidelines are intended to help cast and crew understand radio frequency exposure for equipment that is commonly used by production. RF radiation can be harmful due to the ability of RF energy to heat biological tissue faster than the body can cope with or dissipate the excessive heat. It is not presently known whether there are non-heat related effects of RF exposure.

COMMON SOURCES OF RADIOFREQUENCY

RF is continuously emitted from certain types of wireless transmitting equipment that is commonly used on cameras, audio equipment, wireless lighting controllers, and Wi-Fi hotspots. Equipment that only receives RF is not a source of RF emissions.

This bulletin is not meant to address radio transmitting facilities, satellite antenna farms, microwave installations, cellular telephone towers, and other industrial equipment that may emit radio waves. Individuals working in these areas should follow all warning signage and comply with the facility’s safety protocols and procedures.

The FCC recognizes two tiers of Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits. This bulletin follows the stricter limits of the General Population/Uncontrolled Exposure (GP/UE) guidelines.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR USE

  1. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines. Camera-back transmitters commonly used in the film and television industry are authorized for license-free use by the Federal Communications Committee (FCC) under Part 15 and require that all Part 15 devices be subject to FCC RF exposure guidelines.
  2. Unless it is permissible by the manufacturer, the RF equipment should not be modified in any way. Equipment exceeding FCC unlicensed power limits or otherwise requiring a Special Temporary Authorization (STA) from the FCC should be used only by trained technicians in accordance with the FCC license. If equipment that exceeds FCC unlicensed power limits must be used, production personnel should be made aware so that the required additional safety protocols and precautions can be implemented.
  3. Be aware of the RF output power and minimum safe operating distances from the transmitting source, i.e. antenna. Antennas may be supported by a mast that provides distance from the transmitter. These masts are not an active RF source.
  4. Establish operating procedures that enable personnel using RF Equipment to remain at safe operating distances or provide other means of protection from excessive RF exposure.

GUIDELINES FOR SAFE OPERATION

Methods for mitigating the health effects of RF exposure include:

  1. Hardwiring the equipment
  2. Increasing one’s distance from the RF emitting device
  3. Employing RF shielding or protective clothing

Related Bulletins

Free Driving

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

The term “Free Driving” applies to situations where the driver or a passenger of a vehicle is being photographed by cameras attached to the outside and/or inside the vehicle, or being handheld by a camera operator inside the vehicle. The term free driving also applies in situations when the camera is used to film external shots from in or on the vehicle. For example, during Free Driving the camera can be attached to the exterior of a vehicle with a door mount (hostess tray), a hood mount, or on a mechanical track system. As a result of unique vehicle configurations, equipment placement, personnel location and operations, potential risk factors may exist and should be addressed, as discussed below.

These guidelines do not cover insert car and/or process trailer operations. For those situations, refer to Industry-Wide Labor-Management Safety Committee Safety Bulletin #8 “Guidelines for Traditional Camera Cars” and/or #8, Addendum A “Process Trailer/Towed Vehicle” for guidance. Also refer to Safety Bulletin #37 “Vehicle Restraint Systems – Seat Belts & Harnesses” and #42 “Guidelines for Alternative Driving Systems”.

Considerations Before Engaging in Free Driving

Production shall consider all available options (including camera car, process trailer, alternative driving systems, etc.) and assess and make the determination that Free Driving is an appropriate method.

Driving safely is the first priority; acting and/or getting the shot is second. When safe operation of the vehicle is not possible, alternate means should be used, such as a process trailer or a tow vehicle.

Unsecured equipment poses a particular challenge. Hand-held cameras, equipment, and crew and actor placement should be considered to ensure the equipment will not become a projectile that could cause injury.

Other considerations for safe Free Driving include:

  • Scene action (e.g. stunts, performance, and special effects)
  • The ability of the driver to simultaneously perform, drive, and remain aware of any clearance required for rigging or equipment that extends beyond the vehicle body
  • Controlled or uncontrolled environment (closed course versus open roads with Intermittent Traffic Control (ITC))
  • Location permitting requirements, such as for road closures, ITC or driving grids.
  • Type and condition of vehicle to be used
  • Intended speed and maneuvers
  • Operating the vehicle in close proximity to other vehicles
  • Route conditions (e.g. curved, incline, crown, obstacles, clearances, length, width, paved, gravel, dirt, flat, hilly, wet, or slippery)
  • Anticipated weather
  • Airbags and other automatic devices may need to be deactivated for safety, depending on the placement of personnel and equipment (e.g. cameras, lights). NOTE: Only a person who is trained, qualified, and authorized to disengage an airbag shall do so.
  • If airbags must be disabled, alternative safety measures will need to be implemented (e.g. restraint harnesses).
  • The production should consider road closures, reduced speeds, etc. prior to disengaging airbags.
  • Equipment weight, load capacity, center of gravity, counter balance, placement and use (e.g. camera, lighting, and props)
  • Limited lighting options, including placement and power
  • Limited visibility conditions for the driver (e.g. cameras, mounts, dust, spray, lights, restrictive covering over the windshield, smoke)
  • Communication system (e.g. walkie-talkies)

Prior to Operation

  • When vehicles are used for filming, all rigged equipment must be securely mounted. If cameras are mounted to any part of the vehicle (either inside or out), these must be securely installed with the appropriate mounts / restraints and by a member of the crew who is qualified to perform the procedure.
  • Mounted equipment inside or outside the vehicle should not obstruct the driver’s view or distract attention while the vehicle is in motion.
  • No lighting should be used within the vehicle that could impair the driver’s clarity of vision or provide distraction.
  • The consideration of foreseeable emergencies (e.g. deployment of vehicle airbags) must be taken into account when positioning the camera operator.
  • The driver must be qualified to operate the vehicle and should have an appropriate license. NOTE: A license may not be required by law. However, drivers may need special training to be qualified to drive an unfamiliar vehicle or course.
  • All rigging of the vehicle and equipment, including cameras and lights, is to be performed by qualified personnel in a secure area which is free of known hazards, including other vehicular traffic.
  • A walk-through with the driver should be conducted to familiarize them with the operational characteristics of the vehicle and controls. Always check that the driver can operate the vehicle safely while filming is taking place.
  • Establish communication between drivers and support vehicles (e.g. walkie-talkies).
  • Check the weather and road conditions; establish the route, ensure that it is clear, and allow enough time for rehearsals prior to filming.
  • Brief the driver regarding the proposed filming plans. Ensure that the driver is confident with the route and is aware of where the cameras will be positioned.
  • The driver should do a test drive of the vehicle to familiarize themself with the filming plans and where they need to drive during the scene.
  • After rigging cameras and other equipment, carry out a test drive in a secluded spot or private road to test that the clamps have not come loose through vibrations. This process should be carried out each time you stop as a secondary check.

Inspection

Ensure the vehicle has been inspected, is roadworthy, and has been suitably maintained. Inspection items include, but are not limited to, brakes, steering, tires, engine, drive train, vehicle’s electrical system, connection points, equipment placement, and all safety equipment. Any items not functioning properly must be repaired by a qualified person before use.

Safety Meetings

A shot‐specific safety meeting should be held by the First Assistant Director for all personnel riding in or on the vehicle, including those in close proximity (e.g. stunt personnel or background performers). This meeting should discuss the following topics:

  • Shot sequence and route (e.g. stunt action including crossovers/head‐on or near misses, vehicle speed, number and proximity of other vehicles, crew and camera placement, background performers, and property)
  • The potential use of a convoy of safety buffer vehicles for a cushion zone, plus slower travel speeds
  • Walk‐through or dry‐run
  • Environmental conditions (e.g. weather, surface conditions such as cement, gravel or dirt, topography such as flat or hilly)
  • Possible changes due to hazards
  • Authority to abort, including signals to be used
  • Route conditions (e.g. slope, curved, incline, crown, obstacles, clearances, length and width)
  • Equipment considerations (e.g. rigging, cameras, lights, microphones, airbags)
  • Communication systems (e.g. intercom and designated channel)
  • Signaling system to alert personnel to the vehicle’s impending movement
  • Visibility
  • Special effects
  • Personal protective equipment (e.g. harnesses, seat belts, helmets, eye protection)
  • Traffic and pedestrian control (e.g. street closures, ITC)
  • Emergency plan (e.g. escape routes and contingency plan)

If there is a substantive change in the choreography, equipment, or personnel involved in the shot, the individuals involved should discuss and decide if a subsequent safety meeting and rehearsal should be held.

Operation

Depending on the road conditions, speed, weather, controlled/uncontrolled environments, etc., the following should be considered during rehearsals and filming:

  • Only essential personnel required for the shot should be allowed on or in the vehicle.
  • Equipment and personnel should not disrupt, distract the driver, or compromise the safety of the vehicle operation.
  • Cast and crew riding in the vehicle must be provided a safe and secure place to ride.
  • While filming from inside the vehicle, personnel should be restrained with suitable straps/harnesses. The camera and gear should be properly secured.
  • A generator, when needed, should not be positioned where the cast and crew may be exposed to the exhaust.
  • If using batteries with or without an inverter, the batteries must sit flat and be secured in an upright position. Batteries can get hot and should not be placed against anything combustible.
  • When possible, a remote ON/OFF control switch should be used to run and stop the camera when it is door or hood mounted; a camera assistant rushing to the car to turn off the camera can create a hazard.
  • The performer should not be tasked with “slating” if the vehicle is already in motion.
  • Use comms/walkies to communicate between all parties.
  • Driver should keep within legal speed limits and drive within the law, safely and responsibly to ensure that driving actions do not cause any hazards to oncoming traffic/drivers (if applicable).
  • After each run, a general inspection should be conducted to ensure all equipment is secure. If at any time a camera or other equipment is deemed to be “unsteady,” filming should cease and adjustments made accordingly.

Related Bulletins

Alternative Driving Systems

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

These guidelines are intended to give recommendations for safely working on and around Alternative Driving Systems (ADS) e.g., Pods. An ADS is typically a custom‐built device that is connected to the vehicle so that the vehicle can be driven safely without the person sitting in the normal driving position controlling the steering, accelerator, brakes, or other components. This Safety Bulletin does not address the use of wireless‐controlled vehicle systems.

ADS should only be operated to the levels for which they are designed based upon the requirements and conditions discussed between the Production and the ADS manufacturer or fabricator. The design, fabrication, and assembly of ADS are not covered in this Safety Bulletin.

Responsible Person

Production shall assign a Responsible Person or Persons. A Responsible Person is someone with both the experience and training to recognize and resolve problems relating to the configuration and operation of the ADS. The Responsible Person will have authority over all ADS operations.

Considerations for Using an ADS

  • Type of vehicle to which the ADS will be installed
  • Intended speed and maneuvers
  • ADS rigged vehicle operating in close proximity to other vehicles
  • Aircraft flown in close proximity
  • Scene action (e.g., stunts, performance, and special effects)
  • Route conditions (e.g., curved, incline, crown, obstacles, clearances, length, width, paved, gravel, dirt, flat, hilly, wet, or slippery)
  • Anticipated weather
  • Evaluation of the vehicle’s original systems and whether they should be disengaged (e.g., brakes, ignition, airbags, steering, and accelerator)
  • A secure area for cast and crew riding in or on the ADS vehicle
  • Load capacity, center of gravity, and counter‐balance
  • Equipment weight, placement and use (e.g., camera, lighting, and props)
  • Visibility conditions of ADS operator such as dust, spray, blinding lights, restrictive covering over the windshield, smoke
  • Emergency stop system
  • Communication system
  • Allowing time for proving/testing the system

Pre‐Rig

The capabilities and limitations of the ADS should be communicated to all applicable departments. All rigging of the ADS and equipment, including cameras and lights, is to be performed by qualified personnel in an area secured for the purpose of rigging, which is free of known hazards, including other vehicular traffic. The rigging must be discussed with the Responsible Person and the ADS operator prior to the use of the vehicle. The Responsible Person and ADS operator must inspect the vehicle after any rigging change is made to ensure that the change will not adversely affect the safe operation of the vehicle. Only authorized persons should be in the secured area. When the ADS vehicle is not in operation, steps should be taken to ensure the vehicle cannot inadvertently move.

Inspection

The connected vehicle must be inspected before and after each run. Inspection items include, but are not limited to, the ADS, brakes, steering, tires, engine, drive train, vehicle’s electrical system, connection points, towing equipment, and all safety equipment. Any items not fully functioning must be repaired by a qualified person before use.

Prior to Operation

A walk through with the performer(s) should be conducted regarding which of the vehicle’s original systems are operational and which have been disengaged.

A rehearsal should be considered to familiarize the performer with the operational characteristics of the vehicle and controls.

Safety Meetings

A shot‐specific safety meeting should be held by the First Assistant Director, Responsible Person, and Stunt Coordinator, as needed, involving all personnel riding in, on, or in close proximity (e.g., stunt personnel or background performers) to the ADS vehicle. This meeting should discuss the following topics below:

  • Shot sequence and route (e.g., stunt action including crossovers/head‐on or near misses, vehicle speed, number and proximity of other vehicles, crew and camera placement, background performers, and property)
  • Walk‐through or dry‐run
  • Environmental conditions (e.g., weather, surface conditions, such as cement, gravel or dirt, topography, such as flat or hilly)
  • Possible changes due to hazards
  • Authority to abort including signals to be used
  • Route conditions (e.g., slope, curved, incline, crown, obstacles, clearances, length and width)
  • Equipment considerations (e.g., rigging, exposed controls, drive systems, air bags, automatic roll bar, and fuel‐cell position)
  • Communication systems (e.g., intercom and designated channel)
  • Signaling system to alert personnel to the ADS impending movement
  • Visibility
  • Special effects
  • Personal protective equipment (e.g., harnesses, seat belts, helmets, and eye protection)
  • Traffic and pedestrian control (e.g., street closures and Intermittent Traffic Control (ITC))
  • Emergency plan (e.g., escape routes and contingency plan)

If for any reason there is a change in the choreography or personnel involved in the shot, a safety meeting must be held with all personnel involved to ensure everyone understands the changes.

Operation

During rehearsals and takes:

  • The Responsible Person and/or the ADS Operator has the authority to suspend operation of the ADS vehicle, including the ability to abort
  • Changes should be approved by the Responsible Person and/or ADS Operator
  • The ADS vehicle and equipment should be inspected after each run
  • Do not approach, enter, or exit the ADS without permission from the Responsible Person, First Assistant Director, or ADS Operator
  • Only essential personnel required for the shot should be allowed on or in the ADS vehicle
  • Cast and crew riding on or in the ADS vehicle must be provided a safe and secure place to ride

Related Bulletins

Gimbals

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

These guidelines are intended to give recommendations for safely working on and around gimbals. Gimbals are generally one-of-a-kind, purpose-built devices designed to simulate real-world movement. Challenging environments, such as an airplane in flight, a ship in a storm, and many others may be simulated through the use of a gimbal. Gimbals are typically used to move cast, crew, and sets through a number of programmed or choreographed motions. Gimbals can range in complexity from small-scale, seesaw-type devices moved by simple leverage to complex, multi-axis powered motion bases controlled by computer.

Gimbals are typically designed for specific applications and short duration operation. Gimbals should only operate to the level for which they are designed. Design and assembly of the gimbal is not covered in this Safety Bulletin. This Bulletin assumes that the gimbal has been properly assembled and is fully operational with a clearly defined Exclusion Zone (e.g., marked with tape, barricades, etc.). The Exclusion Zone is the immediate area surrounding a gimbal where only authorized cast and crew are allowed.

Responsible Person

Production shall assign a Responsible Person for the safe configuration and operation of the gimbal. A Responsible Person is defined as someone with both the experience and training to recognize and resolve problems relating to the safe operation of the gimbal.

The Responsible Person will have the ultimate authority over all gimbal operations, including, but not limited to:

  • Determining the maximum weight capacity on the gimbal
  • Marking the Exclusion Zone around the gimbal and control areas
  • When Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) or Residual Current Devices (RCD) should be used for the gimbal or its controls
  • The authority to abort operations. They may designate an operator(s) as needed.

Set Construction and Pre-Rig

  1. Limitations of the gimbal should be communicated to all applicable departments by the Responsible Person.
  2. Reevaluate Exclusion Zone. The Exclusion Zone may change as construction and pre-rigging occurs.
  3. Establish work procedures (e.g., lockout/tagout/blockout, fall protection, guardrails, etc.) and other special procedures for working on or around the gimbal.
  4. Establish emergency shutdown procedures. The dynamic action of the gimbal may create an additional hazard to personnel working on or around the gimbal if it is suddenly shutdown. Personnel on or around the gimbal may have to take specific action to protect themselves in the case of an emergency shutdown.
  5. The Responsible Person should be consulted before operating heavy equipment (e.g., aerial lifts, camera cranes, forklifts, etc.) around the gimbal, hydraulic lines, and/or control lines.
  6. When necessary, crib or block to prevent parts from moving inadvertently when the gimbal is not in operation.
  7. Ensure crossovers and/or protective covers are used to protect hoses, electrical cables, and control lines and to prevent possible tripping hazards.

Safety Meetings During Construction and Pre-Rig

Make crew and applicable department heads aware of the designated Responsible Person, Exclusion Zone parameters, gimbal limitations, work procedures, emergency procedures, and individuals authorized to be inside the Exclusion Zone.

All items included in Set Construction and Pre-Rig should be reevaluated throughout the production as conditions change.

Inspection and Testing

Representatives from all applicable departments shall be included in conducting inspections of their equipment on or around the gimbal, prior to operation.

The Responsible Person should:

  1. Reevaluate the limitations of the gimbal such as, but not limited to, load capacity, how it may be affected by water, weather, additional equipment, structures, dust effects, etc.
  2. Inspect gimbal, base, hoses, structure, service connections to equipment on the gimbal (e.g., electrical special effects), etc.
  3. Test controls.
  4. Evaluate potential impact on cast and crew within the intended load and range of movement.
  5. Prior to operation, verify the Exclusion Zone is free of any unauthorized persons or items.
  6. Check for electrical and/or radio and wireless interference, and maintain the proper perimeter around the gimbal and computer controls.

Prior to Rehearsal and Filming

Reevaluate the Exclusion Zone and communicate to all cast and crew (size and operation of the gimbal will dictate).

Please follow Inspection and Testing items 1–6 above.

Inspect and test other production-related equipment on or around the gimbal.

Safety Meeting

The First Assistant Director shall, along with the Responsible Person, conduct a safety meeting with all cast and crew, including, when necessary, a stunt coordinator, prior to working on or around the gimbal.

Safety meeting topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Communicating to all involved personnel, including performers, the intended action, full range of movement, need for increased awareness, possible changes, and authority to abort, including any visual or audio signals to be used.
  • Authorized personnel riding the gimbal should consider their health status and report any concerns to the appropriate person.
  • The possible effects of electrical or radio and wireless devices on radio-sensitive equipment.
  • Awaiting Responsible Person to give permission before approaching the gimbal.
  • The perimeter of the Exclusion Zone.
  • Emergency Shutdown Procedures.

The Responsible Person should be notified of any changes or concerns in the use of the gimbal, action of the cast or crew, or placement of equipment in order to determine whether an additional safety meeting is necessary.

Ongoing Testing

The Responsible Person or his/her designee shall conduct a test of all controls at least prior to the gimbal being used during each work shift and upon returning to the gimbal from breaks.

During Operation

  1. Follow established procedures when entering the Exclusion Zone.
  2. Gimbal Operator needs a clear line of sight or, if needed, a spotter to assist.
  3. Gimbal Operator should be at the controls at all times when the gimbal is operational.
  4. Gimbal should be stopped if unauthorized personnel enter the Exclusion Zone.
  5. Watch for loose materials, sharp edges, pinch points, etc.
  6. Authorized cast and crew should be made aware of the capabilities and anticipated movement of the gimbal.
  7. Ensure clear, safe access and egress.
  8. Maintain reliable communications during operation.
  9. Always wait for the Responsible Person to give permission before approaching the gimbal.
  10. Secure set pieces, production equipment, and props on the gimbal.
  11. On computer controlled gimbals, ensure the computer has an uninterrupted power supply to allow reliable operation and shutdown in the event of a power interruption.

Additional Considerations

Production Management and the Responsible Person shall take the following into consideration and address with the appropriate personnel:

  • Fall protection for cast and crew; for example, barriers, guard rails, pads, or fall restraint equipment including appropriate anchor points
  • All electrical distribution system components exposed to water should be designed to work in water
  • Galvanic action, which is corrosion from contact between dissimilar metals
  • Inspection of underwater equipment
  • Windy conditions
  • Environmental and human factors
  • Hydraulic leaks
  • Inclement weather
  • Access to the gimbal by cast and crew
  • Placement of electrical equipment and power supply system
  • Lockout/Tagout/Blockout

Related Bulletins

Non-Camera Utility Vehicles

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

These guidelines address non-camera utility vehicles used for production support, such as ATVs, golf carts, snowmobiles and utility vehicles with small engines and/or electric powered. Vehicle operators must observe all applicable rules and regulations. In order to provide a safe workplace, the following vehicle guidelines have been established regardless of the type of vehicle used:

  1. Horseplay or careless operation is not allowed and will not be tolerated.
  2. Inspect the vehicle before use.
  3. Understand the vehicle controls. If you do not know how to operate the vehicle, ask for instruction. Employers/production have the obligation to ensure that employees are instructed in the safe use and operation of the vehicle.
  4. Operators have the responsibility for the safe transportation of passengers and equipment.
  5. Operators should hold a valid driver’s license and if not held, notify production.
  6. Each passenger must have a seat. No sitting on laps, standing on bumpers or riding on tailgates. Multiple people sitting in a seat designated for one and riding on parts of the vehicle that are not designed for that purpose are strictly prohibited.
  7. Wear a seat belt, if provided.
  8. Keep arms and legs in the vehicle at all times.
  9. If the vehicle is not equipped with a windshield, eye protection is recommended.
  10. A helmet may be necessary in certain situations.
  11. If the vehicle is equipped to carry loads, secure or place them in a manner that will not allow them to shift or fall from the vehicle.
  12. Do not exceed the manufacturers’ load recommendations as overloading can affect braking and control of the vehicle. Loads should be appropriately balanced.
  13. Do not operate the vehicle in a manner that is dangerous to you or to others.
  14. Always use caution around people and animals. Pedestrians always have the right of way.
  15. Exercise caution going around corners. Look for hazards, such as other vehicles and people.
  16. Be familiar with the terrain.
  17. To reduce the risk of rollovers, avoid driving off curbs, from one level to another, and/or turning on inclines.
  18. Drive at speeds appropriate to the surface, road and weather conditions (e.g., driving in dirt or gravel, on a steep incline, on ice, in rain, etc.).
  19. In poor visibility, vehicles should not be operated unless equipped with headlights or sufficient lighting is provided.
  20. Towing should only be performed in a manner specified by the manufacturer.

Using and working safely around non-camera utility vehicles requires the full attention and care of the entire crew. Horseplay and excessive speed are the primary causes of accidents and injuries. Extreme caution should be used when operating these vehicles.

Operators are responsible to follow these safety guidelines, employer guidelines and manufacturer operating manuals for the safe operation of these types of vehicles.

Related Bulletins

Foamed Plastics

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

The following recommendations are intended to give general guidance on the safe handling, use, storage and disposal of foam(ed) plastics when used to construct stage sets and props. Foam(ed) plastics are products made of petroleum distillates which can ignite when used in connection with heat from a hot wire or welding/cutting operation (hot work), or when used in close proximity to a fire effect or special effect/pyrotechnic device. Accordingly, it is recommended that only approved fire resistant foam(ed) plastics be used. Prior to purchasing any foam(ed) plastics, check with the local fire Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) in which the production is taking place, or appropriate studio or production safety representatives for guidance.

Types of Foamed Plastics

The following types of foam are most commonly used in set and prop construction:

  • Sprayable polyurethane foam
  • HSF 110 Pour Foam, Class 1
  • Two-part rigid foam (AB foam)
  • Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) or polyurethane or polystyrene foam blocks

Note: Caution must be taken at all times when working with or near foam(ed) plastics. The foams listed above are available in different classes, fire resistant and non-fire resistant. Under the right conditions even fire resistant foams will burn.

  • Foam(ed) plastics must meet the requirements and guidelines of all applicable federal, state, and local laws, rules, regulations, and approved standards. In California, all foam(ed) plastics must meet the requirements of the California Fire Code, Article 40. In many other jurisdictions, foam(ed) plastics material used for decorative purposes, scenery, sets, or props, must comply with the requirements of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Article 140.
  • When ordering foam(ed) plastics, request that your supplier include both “Manufacturer’s Technical Data Sheet(s)”, if available, and “Material Safety Data Sheets(s)” (MSDS) with each order. Foam(ed) plastics should not be allowed in any work area without these documents.

Potential Health Hazards from Working with or Around Foam(Ed) Plastics

When foam products burn they will generate dense clouds of black smoke and a variety of toxic gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and traces of hydrogen cyanide. All precautions must be taken to avoid ignition of foam(ed) plastics to prevent inhalation of potentially hazardous smoke and other injuries, such as burns.

If inhalation of potentially hazardous smoke occurs, immediately seek medical attention.

The primary hazards in working with or around foam(ed) plastics are adverse health effects from direct exposure to foam(ed) plastics and injuries caused from ignition of foam(ed) plastics. Although foam(ed) plastics can be used safely, they must be handled in accordance with the procedures designed to minimize exposure and ignition.

Exposure to Foam(Ed) Plastics

Typically, there are three primary routes of possible exposure to foam(ed) plastics and the vapors released from such products: inhalation, skin contact, and eye contact.

Foam(ed) products may contain chemicals known to produce chemical sensitivities. Individuals who know they have, or are prone to, chemical sensitivities must avoid any and all exposure to these products.

Inhalation

Airborne vapors, aerosol mists, and particulates are irritating to the respiratory tract. Symptoms of overexposure may include tightness of the chest and difficult or labored breathing. Headache, nausea, or vomiting may also occur. Exposure to higher concentrations may result in chemical bronchitis, pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Some individuals may become sensitized and experience severe asthma-like attacks whenever they are subsequently exposed to even minute amounts of vapor. Once sensitized, these individuals must avoid any further exposure.

Skin Contact

Although a single prolonged exposure is not likely to result in the foam material being absorbed through the skin in acutely toxic amounts, skin contact may discolor the skin and cause irritation. Skin contact may produce contact dermatitis and skin sensitization. Therefore, contact with the skin should be avoided.

Eye Contact

Direct or indirect contact with foam material may cause eye irritation, temporary blurred vision or corneal damage. Be aware that ordinary safety goggles or face masks will not prevent eye irritation from high concentrations of vapor.

General Precautions While Cutting, Carving, Sculpting, Gluing and/or Spraying

  1. Skin and eye protection should be used during all normal working operations. Personal protective equipment includes, but is not limited to, safety glasses, chemical worker’s goggles, chemical gloves, face shield, long-sleeve coveralls, safety shoes, or boots.
  2. Mechanical ventilation adequate enough to draw vapors, aerosol mists, or smoke away from an operator’s breathing zone should be provided at all work stations.
  3. When adequate local exhaust ventilation is not feasible, proper personal respiratory equipment must be used.
  4. Monitoring for airborne contaminants may be necessary.

General Precautions for Worksite, Storage and Disposal

  1. Due to potential fire hazard, consideration should be given during the design and pre-production of the set to ensure appropriate egress for cast and crew.
  2. During construction the Construction Coordinator, or other designated person, shall identify the location of exits and maintain escape routes. All escape routes must be clear and unobstructed. The First Assistant Director, or his or her designee, is responsible to ensure that cast and crew members are made aware of the designated escape routes.
  3. Foam(ed) plastics are combustible. Care should be taken to avoid contact with sources of ignition before, during, and after installation of all foam(ed) plastics. Smoking while working with or around foam(ed) plastics is strictly prohibited.
  4. Foam(ed) products and associated adhesives must be dry and cured prior to sculpting and/or shaping.
  5. When setting up welding/cutting operations, do not locate them in close proximity to foam(ed) plastics operations (see Hot Work on Foam(ed) Plastics).
  6. Working with foam(ed) plastics produces combustible dust. Keep the work area clean.
  7. Fire suppression devices and materials should be readily available when working with foam(ed) plastics. Only qualified individuals may use these devices.
  8. Do not expose foam(ed) plastics to reactive chemicals (such as solvents, petroleum products, etc.). Consult the product MSDS and Manufacturer’s Technical Data Sheet for further information.
  9. Since uncured AB foam can generate heat and cause fires, use care in disposal.

Application Of Two Part (AB) Foam

In addition to the “General Precautions”, the following safety guidelines should be used when working with two part (AB) foam:

  1. Only qualified personnel should spray AB foam.
  2. Application of AB foam should be scheduled when other cast and crew members are not on the stage or set.
  3. When using AB foam, either hand mixed or with froth packs, workers should refer to the MSDS and wear the proper personal protective equipment (PPE).
  4. Be aware the application process of AB foam generates heat and may increase the likelihood of fire.
  5. Minimize spaces between foam blocks that will be filled with AB foam. Large spaces that have been filled with AB foam have a greater likelihood of igniting when using the “hot wire” technique.
  6. Allow all joints time to dry and cure before cutting or shaping. A non-cured joint is a fire hazard.
  7. All equipment used in spraying foam should be kept clean, properly calibrated, and in good working order. Special attention should be paid to nozzles, pick-ups, and tubing.
  8. The drums and/or containers of AB foam components require bonding and/or grounding to prevent the build up of static electricity.
  9. Precaution should be taken to avoid spills when storing and using AB foam. When storing 55-gallon drums of AB foam use appropriate secondary containment. Consult the Studio Safety Representative, local Fire Authority or local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) when storing large amounts (55 gallon drums) of AB foam.

Sculpting Foam

In addition to the “General Precautions”, the following safety guidelines should be used when sculpting foam:

  1. Sculpting foam(ed) plastics may involve many different types of tools. Care must be taken when using sharp tools or those with moving parts to avoid injury. Be aware of others working in close proximity.
  2. Abrading, sawing, cutting, sanding, or other methods of sculpting foam(ed) plastics will cause dust and debris to form, which increases the potential for flammability.
  3. Wear appropriate PPE when necessary. Keep the work area clean by regular sweeping and disposal of dust and debris.

Hot Work on Foam(ed) Plastics

In addition to the “General Precautions”, the following safety guidelines should be used when performing hot work on foam(ed) plastics:

  1. Only qualified personnel should use hot wire devices.
  2. Hot work, which includes hot wire sculpting and welding/cutting, may require a fire department permit.
  3. Hot wire sculpting uses various types of electrical and heated devices. AB foam must be fully cured before sculpting with a hot wire.
  4. Exposed hot wire devices are heated to high temperatures. The hot wire heated elements must not be left connected and unattended.
  5. All equipment used in a hot wire operation must be inspected and kept in good working order at all times.
  6. Any handheld hot wire device should be able to be disconnected from the electrical supply at the device.
  7. The hot wire should be adjusted such that the wire is not visibly red.
  8. Hot work must not be performed within ten (10) feet of any flammable and/or combustible materials, unless approved by the AHJ.
  9. A fire watch should be provided during a hot work operation. Individuals assigned to fire watch duty must have fire-extinguishing equipment readily available and must be trained in the use of such equipment. If possible and safe to do so, individuals assigned to fire watch duty should extinguish spot fires and communicate an alarm in the event of a fire.
  10. Fire watch assignments should continue for a minimum of thirty (30) minutes after the interruption or conclusion of hot work operations.

Related Bulletins

Inclement or Severe Weather

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

This bulletin identifies the safety considerations that should be addressed when working outdoors in areas where there is a potential for thunderstorms, lightning, flash flooding, extreme winds, large hail, tornados and hurricanes.

Pre-Planning

Pre-planning can reduce many of the potential dangers posed by inclement weather. The location manager, his/her department representative or production management, should develop an “action plan” when preparing to use locations that may present an inclement or severe weather hazard.

The action plan should designate a person who is responsible for monitoring potential inclement weather by commercial weather services, television and radio station news casts, or other available means.

The action plan should include a method for communication with cast and crew members in the event of inclement or severe weather. The communication methods should reflect the conditions and circumstances at the scene. Other elements to include should be site specific procedures which include methods and routes of evacuation, meeting areas, a means of establishing a head count for cast and crew members and procedures for equipment shut-down, stowage and/or removal. If there is the possibility of inclement or severe weather, a safety meeting shall be held to review and communicate the elements of the action plan.

Specific hazards which may be addressed in the action plan:

Flash Flooding

Causes:

Flash flooding is usually caused by slow moving thunderstorms and can occur within a few minutes or hours of excessive rainfall. High risk locations include low water crossings, recent burn areas in mountains and urban areas which have pavement and roofs which concentrate rainfall runoff.

Flash flooding may be worsened by topography, soil conditions and ground cover. Be especially cautious at night when it is harder to recognize flood dangers.

Realize it does not have to be raining at your specific location for a flood to occur.

Potential Hazards:

  • Crew and equipment could become trapped or stranded as escape routes may be damaged and/or blocked.
  • Equipment and personnel could be swept away or covered by water, mud or debris.
  • Drowning
  • Electrocution
  • Mud slides

Possible Actions:

  • Activate the action plan.
  • Secure equipment and all electrical power.
  • Remove all cast and crew from elevated equipment, scaffolds, booms and sets.
  • Stay clear of potential slide areas next to hillsides or on edges of cliff areas.
  • Follow directions for evacuation procedures as outlined in the action plan.
  • Gather at pre-determined evacuation point and ensure everyone is accounted for.
  • If you come upon a flowing stream where water is above ankles, STOP! Turn around and go another way.
  • Do not drive through moving water or a flooded roadway.
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management.

Lightning

Causes:

Lightning results from the buildup and discharge of electrical energy in clouds. Lightning may strike several miles from an associated thunderstorm and may strike when no clouds or rain are present.

Potential Hazards:

  • Electrocution
  • Burns
  • Falling debris
  • Concussion
  • Fire

Possible Actions:

  • Activate the action plan
  • When working in lightning prone areas, the use of a lightning detector/meter is highly recommended. If a meter is not available, it is possible to estimate the distance of lightning by the thunder. When lightning is seen, count the seconds until thunder is heard and then divide the seconds counted by five to obtain the approximate distance in miles.
  • 30-30 rule: The first 30 means if you count to 30 seconds or less (from lightning to thunder), the lightning is within 6 miles of your location and you are in potential danger and should seek shelter. The second 30 means you should wait 30 minutes from the last flash or thunder to establish an “all clear.”
  • Seek shelter in a sturdy building, a hardtop automobile or truck with the windows rolled up. If such cover is not available seek shelter in wooded areas with thick small trees. Avoid isolated trees.
  • Avoid high ground and keep clear of tall objects, towers, aerial lifts, camera booms, scaffolding, fences or other metal equipment.
  • Avoid contact with any body of water.
  • Avoid using a telephone or cellular phone.
  • Where appropriate, shut down generators in accordance with the established action plan.
  • Avoid using other electrical equipment or appliances.
  • When instructed, move to the pre-determined evacuation area.
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority and/or production management or 30 minutes after the last thunder sound is heard.

High Winds

Causes:

High winds can be associated with extreme weather phenomenon including thunderstorms, tornados, hurricanes, and high and low pressure systems. During the summer months in the Western States, thunderstorms often produce little rain but very strong wind gusts (some up to 100 mph) and dust storms.

Potential Hazards:

  • Flying debris
  • Dust
  • Possibility of persons being swept off their feet
  • Equipment can be blown over and carried for a distance
  • Set destruction
  • Eye injuries

Possible Actions:

  • Activate the action plan
  • Remove all cast and crew from elevated areas, sets, scaffolding and other high objects
  • Lower all aerial, lighting, diffusion, camera boom equipment and tents
  • Tie down and secure all loose equipment
  • When instructed, seek refuge from the winds at your pre-determined safe area
  • Be aware and protect your eyes from potential injury
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management

Large Hail

Causes:

Hail is usually associated with thunderstorms and is caused by freezing rain that can become very large.

Potential Hazards:

  • May cause injuries to crew and damage to equipment

Possible Actions:

  • If a watch or warning has been issued, the action plan should be activated and the crew should follow all instructions
  • Secure and protect all equipment
  • Get down from elevated areas, aerial lifts, booms, scaffold and other high areas
  • When instructed, seek shelter at your pre-determined safe area
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management

Blizzard or Severe Snow Storms

Causes:

A storm accompanied by strong winds creating blizzard conditions with blinding wind-driven snow, severe drifting and dangerous wind chill.

Potential Hazards:

  • Blinding conditions
  • Creation of snow drifts
  • Dangerous wind chill factor
  • Avalanche danger, being caught and/or buried
    • Usually triggered by victim or members of victims party
    • Generally occur with clear skies, little or no snow fall and light or calm winds
    • The weak layer often consists of surface hoar, facets or depth hoar
    • On 30-40 degree slopes, often at a convex part of the slope

Possible Actions:

  • If a watch or warning has been issued, the action plan should be activated and the crew should follow all instructions
  • Secure and protect all equipment
  • Get down from elevated areas, aerial lifts, booms, scaffold and other high areas
  • Stay clear from potential avalanche areas
  • When instructed, seek shelter at your pre-determined safe area
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management

Tornados

Causes:

A tornado is a violent windstorm characterized by twisting, funnel-shaped wind. Tornados tend to occur in the afternoon and evening hours.

Potential Hazards:

  • Tornados are unpredictable and may form without warning
  • Winds can exceed 200 to 300 mph
  • Tornados may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms within the funnel
  • Severe damage can occur to structures
  • The precise location of a touch down point cannot be determined

Possible Actions:

  • If a watch or warning has been issued, the action plan should be activated
  • The crew should be regularly updated regarding any changes to potential weather conditions
  • All cast and crew members must follow all instructions given
  • No employees should be working on elevated equipment. This includes aerial lifts, scaffolds, camera booms, and other high areas
  • Evacuate the area immediately if instructed by a regulatory authority or production management
  • Only secure equipment if there is time and it can be done safely
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an all clear signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management

Hurricanes

Causes:

A slow developing tropical weather phenomenon that forms over water. Its greatest impacts are felt near or on shorelines of land. You will not be surprised by a hurricane, as they are usually tracked by a weather service for many days. They are also known as cyclones or typhoons.

Potential Hazards:

  • Severe winds and rainfall, which may cause extreme flooding
  • Storm surges
  • High waves possibility of persons being swept off their feet
  • Drowning
  • Localized tornados
  • Extreme damage to structures, roads, utilities, vehicles and boats
  • Severe injury due to flying debris

Possible Actions:

  • In most cases, you will have several days warning to activate your action plan
  • Do not stay by shoreline
  • Pack and secure all equipment and remove to a safe area
  • Lower all aerial lifts, camera booms and other equipment. Remove to a safe area as time permits
  • If ordered to evacuate, leave area early — do not hesitate
  • Do not attempt to return to the area until an “all clear” signal has been given by a regulatory authority or production management

Additional Notes

  • OSHA mandates that aerial lifts and other like equipment are not to be operated when winds exceed 25 mph.
  • Be aware that many of the same precautions (e.g., eye protection and securing equipment), can also apply to man-made wind effects such as rotor wash from airplanes or helicopters and large ritter fans.

Related Bulletins

Vehicle Restraint Systems

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

These guidelines provide recommendations on the safe use of restraint systems (e.g., seat belts, harnesses, head and neck restraint systems, etc.) to persons who are either in or on picture vehicles or stunt vehicles.

  • When any vehicle is to be used in a filmed sequence, either off-camera or on camera, such vehicle will be equipped with the appropriate restraint system. These restraint systems must be used at all times by all vehicle operators and passengers.
  • Every effort should be made to install the appropriate safety restraint system for all Vehicles. It is recognized that in exceptional circumstances, such as the case of vintage or antique vehicles, installation of restraint systems may pose additional concerns. These concerns should be addressed as far in advance to filming as is practical.
  • A thorough evaluation of the stunt or driving sequence will be performed and safety concerns should be discussed with all personnel involved. The level of protection should be appropriate to the intended result or other reasonably anticipated consequence of the action.
  • All vehicles, including their additional safety equipment (e.g., harnesses, belts, roll cages, etc.), must undergo thorough safety inspection and testing on a daily basis by qualified experienced personnel. Restraint systems that show signs of damage or fraying shall be immediately removed from service and replaced.
  • Prior to filming, consideration should be given to issues that concern air bags (such as unintentional deployment) and/or other dynamic safety devices.
  • It may be unlawful for any driver or passenger to operate or ride on a vehicle without wearing the proper seat belt while it is being operated on a public highway or road as specified in the applicable vehicle code.

Related Bulletins

Drones

Safety Bulletin

Guidelines

The following guidelines are for the indoor and outdoor use of UAS.

Outdoor use of UAS must follow Federal, state, and local regulatory limitations or restrictions (including Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Section 333 or Part 107 regulations), as well as Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) regulations, as applicable. If there are any conflicts between these guidelines and Federal Regulations, the Federal Regulations will apply.

UAS, a.k.a. “drones”, combine the use of aeronautics, electronics, and wireless transmission technologies through the use of a remote-controlled or a programmable unit. UAS types include, but are not limited to, helicopters, multi-rotor, fixed wing aircraft, small UAS (sUAS), and micro UAS.

These guidelines cover motion picture and television operations including, but not limited to, camera platforms, image and data capture, lighting, special effects, and when the UAS is flown as a prop.

Guidelines for Operation

  1. The UAS Operator or Pilot in Command (PIC) must provide their authorization and/or waiver from the proper regulatory authority and/or AHJ to the production prior to any flight operations.
  2. The PIC is at all times the final authority over the UAS, shall be in command over all flight operations and/or related activities, and be certified and trained, as appropriate. The PIC shall have the final authority to abort any flight operation in the interest of safety. Abort signals shall be specified ahead of time.
  3. The PIC, or a person knowledgeable of the flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, will establish the communication protocols with the designated production representative to implement a plan for communications.
  4. Once the UAS is airborne, no change will be made to any sequence without authorization from the PIC.
  5. Equipment shall not be attached to, nor altered on, the UAS without the authorization of the PIC.
  6. Unless authorized by the PIC or a person knowledgeable of the flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, no personnel shall approach the UAS, whether it is running or not.
  7. An exclusion zone must be established for the setup, testing, takeoff, and landing of the UAS. This zone should be cleared of all debris, including trash or anything else that may hinder the operation of the UAS. All equipment (e.g., cameras, lights, sound booms, etc.) shall be placed at a safe distance away from the zone.
  8. Access to areas where UAS are in operation shall be limited to authorized personnel only. All other personnel shall remain at a designated safe distance. If needed to prevent unintentional entry into potentially hazardous areas, warning signs should be posted and/or other appropriate precautions taken.
  9. Never throw anything such as grip tape, clothing, paper, etc., around the UAS.
  10. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (such as earplugs) shall be provided and worn, as appropriate.
  11. The PIC, or a person knowledgeable of the flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, is responsible for determining if there are any potential radio frequencies or electrical transmissions (devices such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phone boosters or repeaters) that could interfere with or affect the safe operation of the UAS. Cast and crew members with electrical or transmission equipment should contact the PIC to see if it may affect the operation of the UAS.
  12. The storage and transportation of batteries shall be in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations and any shipping company restrictions. For transportation of batteries by air, refer to airline policy and International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations.
  13. Appropriate precautions (i.e. fire extinguishers, no smoking, etc.) should be taken for flammable fuel sources.
  14. All UAS shall have a FAA registration number, as applicable.
  15. The flying accuracy of the UAS may be adversely affected by natural conditions such as wind, air density, temperature, gross weight, humidity, and time of day. Man-made conditions such as a weight load, wind (fans), explosives disturbing airflow and center of gravity can also affect the flight control of the UAS.
  16. There may be times when the UAS is used as a toy or as a prop. Safety precautions for these types of uses should be developed in conjunction with the corresponding risk they present, and when used outside is subject to FAA regulations.
  17. Prior to each flight, the UAS should be inspected by the PIC, or a person knowledgeable of the flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, to determine that the UAS is safe for flight.
  18. Prior to each flight, the boundaries and intended flight path shall be checked to ensure they are cleared for UAS operations.
  19. Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) may have their own requirements regarding UAS operations.
  20. At the start of each day’s filming, the PIC or a person knowledgeable of this flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, and the designated production representative will conduct a briefing/safety meeting for the cast and crew and those persons necessary for filming. Briefings/Safety Meetings should include a discussion of the following:
    • Possible risk to personnel involved
    • Safeguards to personnel, animals, and equipment
    • Communications, including chain of command; and emergency procedures, including landing zone(s) and designated safety zone(s)
    • Boundaries and intended flight paths
    • The intended use of any stunts or special effects during UAS operations
    • Electronic devices and/or other equipment that may interfere with UAS operations
    • Obstacles, equipment and/or locations that may present a hazard
    • Abort signals, audible and/or visual, used to halt filming in the event of unforeseen circumstances or safety hazards
    • Federal, state, and local regulatory limitations or restrictions, if applicable
    • Any exemptions or waivers that are unique to the UAS operator, including flying over people, operating from a moving vehicle, flying at night, etc. and additional safety precautions that need to be taken, if any
    Note: Subsequent briefings/safety meetings may be necessary to address cast and crew members’ concerns regarding other sequences, changes, and/or additional scenes.

Operation Over People

Federal regulations prohibit flying over people during UAS operations, unless the UAS Operator is specifically approved to do so or has been granted a waiver by the FAA, OR they are “participating personnel”.

For the purposes of outdoor filming, Federal regulations define flying “over” people as the UAS flight path being directly over any part of a person. For example, a UAS that hovers directly over a person’s head, shoulders, extended arms or legs would be an operation over people.

Participating Personnel

For the purposes of outdoor filming, Federal regulations define “participating personnel” as ONLY those that are directly participating in the safe operation of the UAS, such as the PIC and/or Visual Observer. (Flying over all other personnel, including cast and crew, requires FAA approval or waiver.)

If required for “non-participants”, safe barriers may include a covered structure or a covered stationary vehicle.

Notification

The Production Company must notify all production personnel of the planned use of UAS so that any objection can be communicated prior to UAS operation. Notification can be accomplished by including a statement like the following on the call sheet:

“An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) will be used in close proximity to production personnel and equipment. Any personnel who does not consent to working within the UAS area must notify (insert the assigned production designee(s)) prior to use of the UAS.”

Indoor Use

  1. As a general matter of safe work practices, the “Guidelines for Operation” and “Notification” procedures listed above should be followed during indoor UAS operations. Note: The indoor use of UAS is not regulated by Federal regulations; however, AHJ regulations may apply.
  2. Indoor conditions such as increased heat resulting in reduced air density and ventilation systems could adversely affect flying characteristics.
  3. The PIC or a person knowledgeable of this flight operation that has been designated by the UAS Operator, and the designated production representative should evaluate the indoor location for items such as interior sets, walls, ceiling beams, lighting equipment, rigging, cables, HVAC equipment, etc. and consider these potential hazards before operation of the UAS. The proximity of the UAS to cast and crew and a live audience, if applicable, and any planned special effects or stunts should also be considered.

Related Bulletins